Anesthesia is a medication for surgical patients that produces a temporary, artificial state of consciousness or loss of physical sensation. Anesthesia is helpful during medical procedures like surgery, tooth extraction or other painful medical procedures. It is necessary when people are having an operation, because of the potential for extreme pain and discomfort. People may even die if they undergo major surgery without anesthesia. That is why doctors must administer anesthesia for many medical procedures.
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What are the Types of Anesthesia?
The medical specialist who administers anesthesia is called an anesthesiologist. There are three main types of anesthesia, including:
Local: This is local numbing of a small area.
Regional: This causes half of the body to become numb and paralyzed for a certain amount of time.
General: This creates a complete loss of consciousness.
What type of anesthesia a doctor decides on depends on what the issue is and what procedure the patient will have. Anesthesia is given to a patient via inhalation or intravenously.
When people have a severe accident and parts of their bodies are badly damaged, anesthesia is helpful. Medical personnel oftentimes administer it before they can deliver treatment for any other issues because it diminishes pain instantly and it makes your body relax more.
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Another use for anesthesia is for mothers who have difficulty delivering their baby. The doctor may resort to performing a cesarean section where they surgically remove the baby from the womb. Often in these situations, anesthesia numbs the lower half of the mother’s body, so she can’t feel any pain whatsoever or move her legs. However, she is still conscious and aware of everything that is happening.
Before the anesthesiologist administers anesthesia, they talk to the patient and studies their medical history, such as allergies. Patients have to sign a form of consent before the process even begins. For people who are minors, their parent or guardian needs to sign the consent form. An adult also has to be present during the procedure, just in case there is an emergency. After surgery, patients receive medication to help their body deal with the side effects of anesthesia.
As helpful as it is, there are some common side effects of anesthesia you should know about. Read on to learn more about them, as well as how to avoid them.
Nausea and Vomiting
Depending on the type of surgery, nausea and vomiting can occur. This side effect usually clears up after 24 hours. Vomiting and nausea can also occur after a patient endures an uncomfortable position for a long time. Medical experts call this postoperative nausea and vomiting. This feeling might continue for a couple of days, depending on the way your body reacts to the anesthesia drugs.
This process of nausea and vomiting is uncomfortable. A patient can lose weight and become dehydrated in the process. If you experience this, you need to drink lots of fluids. You should try to eat foods rich in vitamins and minerals to ensure your body stays strong. Having anesthesia is like consuming drugs and alcohol. It causes your body to produce more acids, which causes your blood to adapt to the situation. When the anesthesia stops, your body becomes confused and off-balance, which leads to nausea and vomiting.
People who often experience minor motion sickness may not experience this type of side effect for long because their body is accustomed to feeling nauseated. So, any nausea they may experience is usually short-lived because their bodies know how to adjust to the feeling. This can also apply to the women who have had morning sickness during their pregnancy.
Recent research studies suggest the people who experienced the most nausea and vomiting were female or those who have a severe problem with motion sickness. They also discovered that younger people are more affected, as well as non-smokers. Unfortunately, you can’t always avoid nausea and vomiting. However, by consuming the proper foods and liquids to stay hydrated and well-nourished, you can fight it and can get back to your normal self quickly.
During this period, the medical staff will provide you with energy-giving fluids like glucose to encourage your body to recover more quickly. However, you will not be able to take in any solid foods or excessive amounts of food because this could result in constipation.
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The process is medically known as hypothermia. Chills and shivering are also side effects that most people endure after coming out of surgery. The shivering process can cause a lot of discomfort for patients recovering from anesthesia. This is a normal process of your body when it is trying to be more comfortable and generate more heat. Patients must be careful because the movement of the shivering process can lead to damage to the freshly-sewn wound.
The post effects of anesthesia tend to hinder your body from generating heat. Vasodilatation or the opening of blood vessels decreases blood pressure. Vasodilatation for prolonged periods of time also tends to hinder your body’s ability to generate heat. After surgery, patients usually rest in comfortable, warm garments that don’t irritate surgical wounds. As for babies, regulating their movement is often necessary. There should be a guardian constantly at the baby’s side to reduce the risk of the baby injuring themselves from movement.
An Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine report discovered using ketamine and pethidine after a surgical procedure greatly lowers the rate of body shivering. They reported mild hypothermia is more present during this process. This mostly occurs after the body tries to redistribute the energy to stop vasodilatation. This side effect is more common in males than in females, because their skin is more sensitive and generates heat much faster.
Sore throats tend to come about due to bacteria, from colds and flu, or even the lack of adequate water supply in the body. After surgery, patients tend to be dehydrated due to the inadequate water supply and blood flow in the body. Patients also experience dry mouth and mild hoarseness in the throat. Communicating can be rather difficult, and if you don’t receive water or any fluids immediately, you could collapse. However, this side effect is not life-threatening if you or your doctor tends to it early.
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Sore throats can also happen after the removal of the tube fixed with in the mouth and windpipe to enable patients to breathe during surgery. The body tends to react from the sudden change and irritation, so one may experience a sore throat and hoarseness. This usually happens in the first four to six hours after surgery. It usually occurs with general anesthesia where the patient becomes completely unconscious. Sore throats are uncomfortable, so seek medical attention if you experience this discomfort for more than a day.
Medical doctors normally talk to patients and describe the symptoms that may arise from anesthesia, such as a sore throat. Sore throats for children who haven’t mastered fluent speaking is also dangerous. They may even end up not being able to pronounce some words for the rest of their lives. A research published in 2013 in the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists journal highlighted all the risk factors that arise after surgery to the throat. The most dangerous of them is the loss of throat function, which can lead to throat surgery.
People over the age of 60 also suffer from sore throats due to weaker bodies. They commonly get medicine to reduce sore throat symptoms. Elderly people who use a throat pack or endotracheal tube need to consider the use of medicines that lessen the pain in the body. However, when having regional surgery, doctors can avoid sore throats by inserting a smaller tube during the surgical procedure.
A headache is the feeling of pain and/or pressure in the head or the brain. Headaches can affect your eyes, ears or nose if the pain is extreme. They tend to make people uncomfortable and unhappy. Continuous headaches can lead to complications like internal bleeding in the brain, amnesia, meningitis and exhaustion. It is normal to encounter headaches and dizziness immediately after surgery. This is because the blood supply to the head needs to get back to normal after the surgical process, because it is lacking an adequate supply of oxygen.
This feeling often occurs shortly after general or regional anesthesia. Headaches often happen when undergoing surgeries like caesarian sections, hip replacements or operations that involve lower parts of the body. These headaches are the result of leaking spinal fluids during the injection process.
It does not lead to any complications, but if the anesthesiologist injects the wrong part of the spinal cord, you could end up not being able to bend again. It could also reduce your back strength. Sometimes, a patient can end up in a coma due to excessive leakage of spinal fluids in the body.
The loss of the spinal fluids leads to internal pressure in the brain. Headaches can occur as a result. Decreased pressure in the fluids that surround the brain and the spinal cord can lead to spinal headaches. Patients often experience this type of a headache 12 to 14 hours after surgery.
Medical personnel will monitor surgical patients to help them avoid the horrible side effects from excess pain, and possibly even brain damage if left untreated.
In 2013, an article in The Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine found 18 percent of people who undergo regional surgery suffer from spinal leakage. Although this is a normal side effect, the results lead to spinal headaches. Postural headaches were also discovered to be a characteristic of spinal puncture headaches. Doctors often prescribe painkillers for patients to reduce the pain, which they can take before surgery to prevent headaches from happening in the first placeConfusion and Cognitive Decline
After a surgical procedure, patients experience a lot of trauma and pain, including headaches, sore throats and sometimes even the temporary loss of sight. This can lead to confusion in bodily functions. The brain the is most affected part in your body following surgery. This is because it is not oxygenated properly during the process. This lack of oxygen can cause patients to feel confused as their heart pumps blood at a greater pace into the brain vessels. This generally is what leads to confusion and disorientation in the body.
People who come out of surgery tend to have impaired judgment, which can lead to making poor decisions. This makes what they do during this period void because it cannot be used against them in a court of law. Ladies who have undergone C-sections may try to kill their child or hurt them due to their impaired judgment. That is why hospital staff monitors them during this period as they might end up doing something they will regret in the future. This process of not thinking clearly is normal for a few days before the brain adapts to its normal routine.
For elderly people, the confusion can last up to four weeks, especially if the person is already suffering from memory loss. A medical study in 2002 revealed that prolonged postoperative memory loss is likely to affect women over the age of 40 who give birth by caesarian section. Men who undergo surgery over the age of 60 are likely to suffer from memory loss. If the body and brain are too weak, they may never recover from the confusion and memory loss. The rate of memory loss increases as the age increases, up to 80. People over the age of 80 could even return to behaving like infants.
For this reason, family members of elderly patients receive instructions and information on the possibility of permanent memory loss before they sign any consent form.