Tag Archives: Cervical cancer

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer staging helps to determine the disease prognosis and to select an appropriate treatment strategy.  FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) is the most commonly used staging systems for cervical cancer. Following table describe the characteristics of ovarian cancer according to different stages: The best way to prevent Cervical Cancer is by limiting your partners, getting your annual exams, having your pap’s done as your guidelines for your age recommend. Or If you have a new partner, Also making sure your Doctor is doing the HPV test on or off your pap and follow the follow the guidelines again by your age. Your Doctor will know this information. The worst thing you can do is ignore a abnormal result, Being tested regularly makes a different is a successful treatment, less treatment. If you don’t get your results from your Doctor’s office call and ask, Sometimes results can be lost. If you don’t feel comfortable with your Doctors decision on treatment, make a appointment and discuss with he or she, If you are still uncomfortable , seek a second opinion. If you choose to not take your Doctors recommendations, they can terminate your care, or you can ask to sign a release that you refuse treatment. If you have been told your Doctor you know longer need pap smears, you should still see your Doctor for annual pelvic exam. Or if you get a new partner even being released from Pap Smears, let your Doctor know.

FIGO StageDescription
IThe primary tumor has invaded into deeper cervical layer but is present only in the Uterus. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IAThe cancer cells are visible only under a microscope. Cervical stromal invasion </=5.0 mm in depth and horizontal epithelium invasion </=7.0 mm. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IA1The cancer cells are visible only under a microscope. Cervical stromal invasion </=3.0 mm in depth and horizontal epithelium invasion </=7.0 mm. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IA2The cancer cells are visible only under a microscope. Cervical stromal invasion >3.0 mm but </=5.0 mm in depth and horizontal epithelium invasion </=7.0 mm. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IBThe cancer cells are visible without a microscope or those visible only under a microscope but tumor size larger than T1a2. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IB1The cancer cells are visible without a microscope and tumor size </=4.0 cm. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IB2The cancer cells are visible without a microscope and tumor size >4.0 cm. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IIThe cancer cells have invaded beyond the cervix and the uterus but haven’t spread to the pelvic wall or to the lower part of the vagina. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IIAThe cancer cells have invaded beyond the cervix and the uterus but haven’t spread to the parametria (tissue next to the cervix). It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IIA1The cancer cells have invaded beyond the cervix and the uterus but haven’t spread to the parametria and tumor size </=4.0 cm. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IIA2The cancer cells have invaded beyond the cervix and the uterus but haven’t spread to the parametria and tumor size >4.0 cm. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IIBThe cancer cells have spread to the parametria. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IIIThe cancer cells have spread to the pelvic wall or to the lower part of the vagina. It may have blockage the ureter causing hydronephrosis. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IIIAThe cancer cells have spread to the lower part of the vagina. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IIIBThe cancer cells have spread to the pelvic wall. It may have blockage the ureter causing hydronephrosis. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IVAThe cancer cells have invaded beyond the pelvis wall into the bladder or the rectum. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes without any spread to distant body parts.
IVBThe cancer cells have spread to distant body parts such as distant lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or liver.


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Responsible Drinking?

Responsible Drinking? Not Very

“Responsible drinking” has become a 21st-century mantra for how most people view alcohol consumption. But when it comes to cancer, no amount of alcohol is safe.[1] That is the conclusion of the 2014 World Cancer Report (WCR), issued by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Declared a carcinogen by the IARC in 1988,[2] alcohol is causally related to several cancers. “We have known for a long time that alcohol causes esophageal cancer, says Jürgen Rehm, PhD, WCR contributor on alcohol consumption, and Senior Scientist at the Centre for Addictions and Mental Health in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, “but the relationship with other tumors, such as breast cancer, has come to our attention only in the past 10-15 years.”
The Risk Is Dose-Dependent

The more alcohol that a person drinks, the higher the risk. The alcohol/cancer link has been strengthened by the finding of a dose/response relationship between alcohol consumption and certain cancers. A causal relationship exists between alcohol consumption and cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colon-rectum, liver, and female breast; a significant relationship also exists between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer.[1]

Links have also been made between alcohol consumption and leukemia; multiple myeloma; and cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and skin, but fewer studies have looked at these relationships and more research is needed to establish a confirmed association.[1] For bladder, lung, and stomach cancers, the evidence for an alcohol-cancer link is conflicting.

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